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Facing Winter Seasons (2 Tim 4:9-22)


Facing Winter Seasons


Do your best to come to me quickly, for Demas, because he loved this world, has deserted me and has gone to Thessalonica. Crescens has gone to Galatia, and Titus to Dalmatia. Only Luke is with me. Get Mark and bring him with you, because he is helpful to me in my ministry. I sent Tychicus to Ephesus. When you come, bring the cloak that I left with Carpus at Troas, and my scrolls, especially the parchments. Alexander the metalworker did me a great deal of harm. The Lord will repay him for what he has done. You too should be on your guard against him, because he strongly opposed our message. At my first defense, no one came to my support, but everyone deserted me. May it not be held against them. But the Lord stood at my side and gave me strength, so that through me the message might be fully proclaimed and all the Gentiles might hear it. And I was delivered from the lion’s mouth. The Lord will rescue me from every evil attack and will bring me safely to his heavenly kingdom. To him be glory for ever and ever. Amen. Greet Priscilla and Aquila and the household of Onesiphorus. Erastus stayed in Corinth, and I left Trophimus sick in Miletus. Do your best to get here before winter. Eubulus greets you, and so do Pudens, Linus, Claudia and all the brothers and sisters. The Lord be with your spirit. Grace be with you all.

2 Timothy 4:9-22



How should we face winter seasons—times of hardship and difficulty? In this text, Paul was in a Roman prison awaiting an imminent death sentence. He calls for Timothy to do his best to come before winter. Paul asks for items like his cloak, as the prison would have been very cold, but more importantly, he wanted to see Timothy before he died.


We all experience winter seasons—times of difficulty and eventually death—even as Paul did. Second Timothy 4:9-22 is Paul’s last written words before he was beheaded. In these final words, we learn six principles about faithfully facing our winter seasons—our times of trial.


Big Question: What can we learn from 2 Timothy 4:9-22 about facing winter seasons—various trials in life including death?


When Facing Winter Seasons, We Must Seek the Help of Godly Saints


Do your best to come to me quickly, for Demas, because he loved this world, has deserted me and has gone to Thessalonica. Crescens has gone to Galatia, and Titus to Dalmatia. Only Luke is with me. Get Mark and bring him with you, because he is helpful to me in my ministry. I sent Tychicus to Ephesus… Greet Priscilla and Aquila and the household of Onesiphorus. Erastus stayed in Corinth, and I left Trophimus sick in Miletus. Do your best to get here before winter. Eubulus greets you, and so do Pudens, Linus, Claudia and all the brothers and sisters.

2 Timothy 4:9-12, 19-21


Throughout Paul’s letters and the book of Acts, there are at least 100 different names.[1] Paul was no lone ranger; he knew he couldn’t complete the task the Lord gave him alone. This was especially true as he faced his final hours. He asks Timothy to come before winter, as travel would have been difficult and it was getting cold. He asks for him to bring a cloak and books (v. 21). He also asked for him to bring Mark (v. 11). In his final hours, he sought the help of his beloved friends.


This was similar to Christ’s final hours. Before Christ went to the cross, he approached his inner circle of Peter, James, and John—asking if they would pray with him for an hour. In the same way, when facing various trials, we must also seek out brothers and sisters. This may include asking for help such as prayer, counsel, or practical things like money.


Sadly, many are not prepared for the winters of life simply because they have not developed relationships with the body and/or are not willing to ask for help. Paul said in 1 Corinthians 12:21, “the eye can’t say to the hand, ‘I don’t need you.” Yet, many do this, and consequentially, impoverish themselves. Instead, individuals and families often try to brave the winter on their own—without God’s provisions through the body of Christ.


Solomon said this about the importance of friends and their support:


Two are better than one, because they have a good return for their labor: If either of them falls down, one can help the other up. But pity anyone who falls and has no one to help them up. Also, if two lie down together, they will keep warm. But how can one keep warm alone? Though one may be overpowered, two can defend themselves. A cord of three strands is not quickly broken.

Ecclesiastes 4:9-12


Essentially, Solomon said that it’s incredulous to try to walk this life alone—there are too many unforeseen trials. What will one do when he falls and is all alone? What will one do if he lacks the resources to stay warm? When Paul faced his winter season, he had Luke beside him but he also sent for Timothy and Mark.


Who is your Luke? Who are your Timothy and Mark? Who are those that you call upon in times of trouble? Who do you seek for prayer and counsel? If we are going to be prepared for the winter, we must surround ourselves with godly brothers and sisters and be willing to humbly ask for help.


Application Question: Why is it so hard for many to ask for help in times of hardship? Who do you ask for help from in times of trouble?


When Facing Winter Seasons, We Must Continue Ministering to Others


Only Luke is with me. Get Mark and bring him with you, because he is helpful to me in my ministry. I sent Tychicus to Ephesus.

2 Timothy 4:11-12


When Paul asks Timothy to bring Mark, the reason was “because he is helpful to me in my ministry” (v. 12). This is shocking for several reasons: First, Paul and Barnabas had once fought over Mark, as Paul didn’t want to take him on their second missionary journey (Acts 15). Mark had left them during the first one, and therefore, Paul didn’t want to take the risk. However, now, Mark is helpful to him in ministry. This reminds us that no matter how many times we fall or blow it, God can still use us. Mark not only returned to the ministry but also wrote the Gospel of Mark. It seems he became an intimate disciple of not only Barnabas but also Peter. In 1 Peter 5:13, Peter calls him his son. Previously, Peter had also abandoned his mentor, Christ, in his most difficult hour. No doubt, Peter could relate well with and empathize with Mark. He also saw Mark’s great potential, even as Christ saw Peter’s.


But secondly, this stands out simply because Paul is focused on his “ministry” only months before his death. If there was a time to focus on himself, certainly, it was in this hour, as he awaited his execution. It’s normal to be self-consumed when we go through winter seasons. We say, either to others or just ourselves, “This is a time where I just need to focus on me. This is a time where I need to be selfish!” However, that is not how Paul was, and it certainly wasn’t how Christ was. Philippians 2:3-5 says:


Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves, not looking to your own interests but each of you to the interests of the others. In your relationships with one another, have the same mindset as Christ Jesus:


We must have the mindset of Christ by considering others above ourselves, even as Paul did. In his winter season, Paul did not become self-consumed, he continued doing ministry. In fact, when he had his preliminary hearing, Paul’s focus was still on preaching the gospel. In verse 17, he said this, “But the Lord stood at my side and gave me strength, so that through me the message might be fully proclaimed and all the Gentiles might hear it.” At his hearing, he boldly declared the gospel to all the Gentiles listening, including the magistrates and possibly Nero.


In our winter seasons, we must continue to minister to others, and at times, even increase it. Now, this is not denying that we need seasons of rest and recovery. But our rest and recovery is so that we can minister again, and more effectively. Sometimes, ministry is the exact thing one needs, when going through a hard time. Consider these promises: Proverbs 11:25 says, “he who refreshes others shall himself be refreshed.” Matthew 5:7 says, “Blessed are the merciful for they shall be shown mercy.” Isaiah 58:6-12 promises tremendous blessings to those who minister to others:


“Is not this the kind of fasting I have chosen: to loose the chains of injustice and untie the cords of the yoke, to set the oppressed free and break every yoke? Is it not to share your food with the hungry and to provide the poor wanderer with shelter—when you see the naked, to clothe them, and not to turn away from your own flesh and blood? Then your light will break forth like the dawn, and your healing will quickly appear; then your righteousness will go before you, and the glory of the Lord will be your rear guard. Then you will call, and the Lord will answer; you will cry for help, and he will say: Here am I. “If you do away with the yoke of oppression, with the pointing finger and malicious talk, and if you spend yourselves in behalf of the hungry and satisfy the needs of the oppressed, then your light will rise in the darkness, and your night will become like the noonday. The Lord will guide you always; he will satisfy your needs in a sun-scorched land and will strengthen your frame. You will be like a well-watered garden, like a spring whose waters never fail. Your people will rebuild the ancient ruins and will raise up the age-old foundations; you will be called Repairer of Broken Walls, Restorer of Streets with Dwellings.


For those who spend themselves in ministering, God’s promises direction, healing, righteousness, protection, answered prayer, provision, and becoming an even more effective minister. That’s what Paul was. He was a Repairer of Broken Walls and a Restorer of Streets with Dwellings.


When we serve others, God pours grace all over our lives. He makes our winters a season of harvest. Are you ministering to others, even when things are difficult? Often by becoming self-consumed, we make our winter seasons colder. Sometimes we isolate ourselves and replay our problems over and over—making them bigger in our minds, causing greater discouragement and depression. Often, ministering to others is exactly what we need, even if all we can offer is prayer. In Paul’s first imprisonment, the gospel advanced—the Roman guards and Caesar’s household heard the gospel (Phil 1:12-13, 4:22). The same thing happened in his second imprisonment—he continued his ministry.


Are you serving others in your winter seasons? Like Paul, are you performing ministry?


Application Question: Why is it so important to serve others when going through difficult seasons? What are some of the benefits and how have you experienced them?


When Facing Winter Seasons, We Must Abide in God’s Word


When you come, bring the cloak that I left with Carpus at Troas, and my scrolls, especially the parchments

2 Timothy 4:13


Interpretation Question: What were the cloak, scrolls, and parchments?


Paul not only asked Timothy to come to Rome but also for him to bring a cloak, scrolls, and parchments. The cloak was “‘an outer garment of heavy material, circular in shape with a hole in the middle for the head.’”[2] We don’t know for sure what the scrolls and parchments were. Many believe the parchments were Old Testament manuscripts and the scrolls were possibly the Gospels.[3] Unshockingly, while Paul was waiting to die, he wanted to continue studying God’s Word. Charles Spurgeon used this passage to rebuke pastors who preached but neglected study. He said this of Paul:


He is inspired, and yet he wants books! He has been preaching at least for thirty years, and yet he wants books! He had seen the Lord, and yet he wants books! He had had a wider experience than most men, and yet he wants books! He had written the major part of the New Testament, and yet he wants books![4]


In fact, Paul was probably meditating on Scripture when he wrote this final section of 2 Timothy. Some scholars have noted how verses 16-18 are similar to Psalm 22—the very Psalm Christ quoted while on the cross (Matt 27:46). Lock notes how there are nine verbal similarities between the texts.[5] Consider Kent Hughes comments:


There is something else remarkable here, in that Paul’s reference to the lion’s mouth is substantial evidence that as he faced death on this occasion he was meditating on Psalm 22, the same Psalm that occupied Jesus at his death. The text here resounds with allusions to Psalm 22: 1) Verse 16, “everyone deserted me,” alludes to Psalm 22:1, “why have you forsaken me?” 2) Verse 16, “no one came to my support,” references Psalm 22:11, “there is no one to help.” 3) Verse 17, “I was delivered from the lion’s mouth,” alludes to Psalm 22:21, “Rescue me from the mouth of the lions.” 4) Verse 17, “and all the Gentiles might hear it,” is similar to Psalm 22:27, “All the ends of the earth will remember and turn to the Lord.” 5) Verse 18, “and will bring me safely to his heavenly kingdom,” echoes Psalm 22:28, “dominion belongs to the Lord.” The old apostle was filled with the Word so that he was like a lion—confident and regal.[6]


To the very end, Paul was seeking to be like his Lord. In Philippians 3:10-11, Paul shared how he wanted to know Christ, the power of his resurrection, having fellowship with his suffering, dying like him and being resurrected like him. Like Christ, Paul probably meditated on and quoted Psalm 22 before his death.


Similarly, when we encounter winter seasons, we must go even deeper into God’s Word. Instead of allowing complaints and curses to come from our mouths, Scripture must flow out. Charles Spurgeon said that the believer must meditate on the Word of God so much that his blood becomes Bibline. If someone, cut him, Scripture should flow out. This is what happened with Christ. On the cross, he cried out: “My God, My God why have you forsaken me” (Psalm 22:1) and “Into your hands I commit my spirit” (Psalm 31:5). Paul seems to do the same.


Meditating on God’s Word bring tremendous benefits, especially when we are struggling. Psalm 19:7-8 says,


The law of the Lord is perfect, refreshing the soul. The statutes of the Lord are trustworthy, making wise the simple. The precepts of the Lord are right, giving joy to the heart. The commands of the Lord are radiant, giving light to the eyes.


Meditating on Scripture refreshes us, gives us wisdom, makes us joyful, and gives us guidance. When we don’t meditate on God’s Word, we find ourselves burnout, lost, angry, and short-sighted. When Job was in his winter season, he also drank deeply from Scripture. He said that he loved the Word more than his daily bread (Job 23:12).


Are you meditating on God’s Word during your winter seasons? Are you being like Paul, Christ, and even Job?


Application Question: In what ways have you experienced God’s grace in winter seasons by living in God’s Word? In what ways have you experienced lack by not meditating on it?


When Facing Winter Seasons, We Must Offer Grace to Those Who Fail Us


for Demas, because he loved this world, has deserted me and has gone to Thessalonica… Alexander the metalworker did me a great deal of harm. The Lord will repay him for what he has done. You too should be on your guard against him, because he strongly opposed our message. At my first defense, no one came to my support, but everyone deserted me. May it not be held against them.

2 Timothy 4:10, 14-16


Observation Question: What people harmed or disappointed Paul while he was on trial in Rome?


During Paul’s winter season, many failed him. Demas, who previously was a faithful co-worker (Philemon 24, Col 4:14), deserted Paul, because he loved this present world (v. 10). Associating with Paul could have led to his imprisonment and death; therefore, Demas chose the comfort of this world instead of the cross of Christ. We don’t know if he turned fully away from Christ, but it’s possible. First John 2:15 says, “Do not love this world or the things in this world, if anybody loves the world, the love of the father is not in him.” This is an assurance of salvation text, as 1 John was written to provide tests of salvation (1 John 5:13).


We don’t know for sure who Alexander the metalworker was, but it was possibly the same person mentioned in 1 Timothy 1:20. Paul talked about how Alexander had shipwrecked his faith by not holding on to sound doctrine and not keeping a clean conscience. If this was the same man, he was probably a former elder in the Ephesian church who became a false teacher (cf. Acts 20:29-30).


How did Alexander harm Paul? When Paul says, “Alexander the metalworker did me a great deal of harm,” it can be translated “Alexander the coppersmith charged me with much evil” (v. 14).[7] In Roman courts, there were two hearings: the first was where the charges were established, and the second was where the verdict was handed down.[8] In the preliminary hearing, Alexander probably heaped up false charges against Paul calling him an insurrectionist and an enemy of Nero (just like the Pharisees did with Christ). Alexander also strongly opposed the Gospel of Christ—possibly declaring that it was antagonistic to the pluralistic religion of Rome, where Nero was a god amongst many gods. Paul’s response to Alexander’s crime was, “The Lord will repay him for what he has done” (v.14). Some versions say, “May the Lord repay” (Young’s Literal) or “Lord reward him” (KJV). However, those are bad translations. Paul did not call a curse down on him but simply stated a fact: God will ultimately bring justice.


Not only was Paul hurt by Demas and Alexander—both probably previous co-workers—but he was also hurt by the Roman Christians who didn’t support him at his hearing. No one defended him by declaring that the charges were untrue. Luke and Tychicus probably had not reached Rome yet. Many believers had migrated from Rome because of the widespread persecution, and those that remained were intimidated by the potential consequences of associating with Paul. Similar to Christ’s trial, false witnesses lied about Paul, and his friends were nowhere to be found.


When facing winters, we must be aware that many might fail us as well. Sometimes our closes friends will walk out on us. Others won’t reach out, maybe, because they’re afraid and don’t know what to say. At times, people might hurt us by talking behind our back or to our face. However, the failures manifest, we can be sure that they will, at times, happen. People are frail and prone to sin, just as we are.


Application Question: How should we respond when others hurt us, as modeled by Paul?


1. When hurt by others, we must let God fight our battles. Romans 12:19 says, “Do not take revenge, my dear friends, but leave room for God’s wrath, for it is written: ‘It is mine to avenge; I will repay,’ says the Lord.” When Paul declared, “The Lord will repay him,” (v. 14) he was declaring his trust in God and his Word. We must trust God to fight our battles—we shouldn’t try to take revenge or get even. Judgment is coming, and God will do what is just.


2. When hurt by others, we must bless them. At the Roman Christians’ failure, Paul simply said, “May it not be held against them” (v. 16). He blessed them—asking God to forgive them, even as Christ did when others failed him (Lk 23:34). Scripture calls us to do the same. Romans 12:20-21 says,


“If your enemy is hungry, feed him; if he is thirsty, give him something to drink. In doing this, you will heap burning coals on his head.” Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good.


We must overcome evil with good by entrusting our battle to the Lord and blessing those who curse us. If we instead respond with evil, we do so to our own peril. God will also be just, when he considers our response to wrongs against us. Ephesians 4:26 says, “Be angry and don’t sin” (NKJV). We can be righteously angry over sins committed against us and others and allow that righteous anger to lead us into sin. One such sin is unforgiveness. Christ said if we don’t forgive others, God won’t forgive us (Matt 6:15). Also, he taught that God would hand us over to torturers for withholding forgiveness—no doubt referring to demonic discipline (Matt 18:35, cf. 1 Cor 5:5). Referring to sin, in general, David said if we cherish iniquity in our hearts, the Lord will not hear us (Psalm 66:18). Responding wrong to others failures hurts them, but most times, it hurts us worse.


Sadly, many leave winter seasons with emotional baggage and strongholds—bitterness, unforgiveness, and even addictions—therefore, missing God’s best. However, if we respond correctly to others failure like Paul and Jesus, God will bless us. He will use our winter seasons to bless us, mature us, and give us a greater ministry (cf. 2 Cor 1:3-7, Rom 5:3-5, James 1:2-4).


Are you blessing those who have failed you? Or are you withholding forgiveness—bringing God’s discipline upon your life?


Application Question: What ways have you experienced other’s failing you, as part of a winter season? How did you respond? How can we extend grace when others have extended evil to us?


When Facing Winter Seasons, We Must Trust in God’s Faithfulness


But the Lord stood at my side and gave me strength, so that through me the message might be fully proclaimed and all the Gentiles might hear it. And I was delivered from the lion’s mouth. The Lord will rescue me from every evil attack and will bring me safely to his heavenly kingdom. To him be glory for ever and ever. Amen.

2 Timothy 4:17-19


Though everybody had forsaken Paul, Christ stood beside him and strengthened him to preach the gospel to all at his hearing (v. 17). This was the same Christ who blinded Paul on his way to Damascus and called him to be an apostle (Acts 9); the same Christ who trained him for three years while in Arabia (Gal 1:17); the same Christ who comforted him while he was in Corinth saying that he had many people in that city (Acts 18:9).


We don’t know how Christ appeared to him. Was it a vision, a voice, or his actual presence? We don’t know, but when Paul was forsaken by others, Christ stood beside him, strengthened him, and delivered him from the lion’s mouth.


Deliverance from the lion’s mouth was a common figure of speech for deliverance from danger (cf. Ps. 22:21, 35:17). However, it also could have referred, specifically, to being delivered from Nero or Satan (cf. 1 Pet 5:8). Either way, Christ was faithful to Paul. It was not yet his time to die.


Interpretation Question: What did Paul mean when he said the Lord would rescue him from every evil attack and bring him safely to heaven (v. 18)?


Obviously, Paul did not mean that Christ would deliver him from execution. In 2 Timothy 4:6, Paul said that the time of his departure was near and that he was already being poured out like a drink offering. Most likely, Paul was referring to God delivering him from falling into sin by being ashamed of Christ and his Word, in his last moments. For the Christian, there is something worse than death and that is denying Christ (cf. Matt 10:33).


In Philippians 1:19-21, Paul used similar language when talking about God delivering him from his first Roman imprisonment. He said,


for I know that through your prayers and God’s provision of the Spirit of Jesus Christ what has happened to me will turn out for my deliverance. I eagerly expect and hope that I will in no way be ashamed, but will have sufficient courage so that now as always Christ will be exalted in my body, whether by life or by death. For to me, to live is Christ and to die is gain.


What was his deliverance? It was not being ashamed but having courage to exalt Christ in his body through life or death. Sometimes it is God’s will to deliver us from trials, but most times, it is God’s will to deliver us through them. Paul could trust God with both—whether delivered from or through. By God’s grace, Paul would be faithful to Christ in his trial and be taken safely to heaven.


Sadly, many essentially deny Christ in their trial. Instead of trusting him when they go through trials, they become angry at him—essentially declaring that he is unjust, unloving, and unwise. By distancing themselves from God, they make their trial worse and reject much of God’s grace. Instead of being strengthened like Paul, they are weakened by their own neglect of the Lord.


If we are going to faithfully face our winter seasons, we must trust in the Lord—whether it’s his will to take away the trial or take us through. Either way, his will is always good. Proverbs 3:5 says, “Trust in the Lord and lean not on our own understanding.” We may not understand everything, but we must trust that God does and that he is working all things for our good (Rom 8:28). He has good plans for his children. Do you trust him?


Application Question: What should we do when we lack trust—when we doubt God’s plan and his goodness? How do we increase our faith in God?


1. We develop our trust in God by studying Scripture. Romans 10:17 says faith comes by hearing and hearing by the Word of God. As mentioned previously, we must saturate ourselves in God’s Word during trials in order to build our faith and trust God more. Apart from Scripture study, our faith will be weak.


2. We develop our trust in God by prayer. One man who doubted Christ said, “I believe, help my unbelief” (Mark 9:24). At one time, the disciples, similarly, exclaimed, “Increase our faith!” (Lk 17:5). When we lack faith, we must ask for it; we must cry out for more grace. Scripture says that those who continue to ask, seek, and knock will receive (Mat 7:7-8).


3. We develop our trust in God by remembering times when he was especially faithful to us. When Israel miraculously crossed the Jordan river on dry land, God commanded them to take twelve stones from the river bed so they would always remember (Josh 4:5). Similarly, after God provided manna from heaven for Israel to eat, he made them place a jar of it in the Ark of the Covenant to help them remember (Ex 16:33). Similarly, the Patriarchs would often build altars and give the areas a name in order to remember God’s grace (cf. Gen 34:14-15). Since we’re terribly prone to forget God’s past graces, we must take efforts to remember them. We do this by writing them down in our journals or making memorials and visiting them when doubting.


To face our winters, we must trust God and not deny him or get angry with him. His will is good whether it is to protect us from the trial, remove it, or go through it.


Application Question: Why is it important to trust God in the winter seasons? How do you strengthen your faith when it’s weak?


When Facing Winter Seasons, We Must Live in Prayer


The Lord be with your spirit. Grace be with you all.

2 Timothy 4:22


Finally, as Paul faces his winter, he closes 2 Timothy with a benediction, “The Lord be with your spirit. Grace be with you all” (v. 22). The word “your” is singular and “you” is plural. [9] He prays for Jesus to be with Timothy and asks for grace upon the Ephesian church. Every one of Paul’s benedictions include the word “grace.” Grace was a central word in Paul’s theology. Believers are both saved by God’s grace and daily sanctified it. Therefore, like Paul, we must always cry out for grace in prayer, not only for ourselves but also for others.


Prayer must be the atmosphere a believer lives in, especially when in trials. Consider what Paul says to the Philippians, a church that was being persecuted from outside and having disputes from within (cf. Phil 1:28-29, 4:2-3):


Do not be anxious about anything, but in every situation, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God. And the peace of God, which transcends all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus.

Philippians 4:6-7


By choosing not to worry in our difficult seasons, but instead, praying, giving thanks, and presenting our requests to God in every situation, God will provide peace and guard our hearts. Peace in and protection of our hearts is directly linked to our prayer life. Lack of prayer leads to worry, doubt, and various sins, especially when going through trials.


Are you living in prayer? Are you praying in every situation—good times, bad times, boring times? Prayer is the doorway for grace both to endure and excel in our trials.


Application Question: How would you rate your prayer life 1-10? What are some disciplines that help with praying consistently? How have you experienced special grace during winter seasons through prayer—both yours and that of others?


Conclusion


How can we faithfully face our winter seasons—times of hardship?


  1. When Facing Winter Seasons, We Must Seek the Help of Godly Saints

  2. When Facing Winter Seasons, We Must Continue Ministering to Others

  3. When Facing Winter Seasons, We Must Abide in God’s Word

  4. When Facing Winter Seasons, We Must Offer Grace to Those Who Fail Us

  5. When Facing Winter Seasons, We Must Trust in God’s Faithfulness

  6. When Facing Winter Seasons, We Must Live in Prayer







[1] Wiersbe, W. W. (1996). The Bible exposition commentary (Vol. 2, pp. 257–258). Wheaton, IL: Victor Books.


[2] Stott, J. R. W. (1973). Guard the Gospel the message of 2 Timothy (p. 120). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.


[3] Teacher's Outline and Study Bible - Commentary - Teacher's Outline and Study Bible – 2 Timothy: The Teacher's Outline and Study Bible.


[4] Spurgeon’s Expository Encyclopedia [Baker], 11:386.


[5] Stott, J. R. W. (1973). Guard the Gospel the message of 2 Timothy (p. 123). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.


[6] Hughes, R. K., & Chapell, B. (2000). 1 & 2 Timothy and Titus: to guard the deposit (p. 269). Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books.


[7] MacDonald, W. (1995). Believer’s Bible Commentary: Old and New Testaments. (A. Farstad, Ed.) (p. 2127). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.


[8] MacArthur, J. F., Jr. (1995). 2 Timothy (p. 211). Chicago: Moody Press.


[9] Hughes, R. K., & Chapell, B. (2000). 1 & 2 Timothy and Titus: to guard the deposit (p. 271). Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books.

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